Welcome to Nutrition

Foods contain a lot of vitamins and minerals and few calories. They also are low in sugar, sodium, starches, and bad fats. Your body needs vitamins and minerals. They nourish your body and help keep you healthy.

You should choose a diet made up of nutrient-rich foods. Try to eat a variety of foods to get different vitamins and minerals. Foods that naturally are nutrient-rich include fruits and vegetables. Lean meats, fish, whole grains, dairy, legumes, nuts, and seeds also are high in nutrients.

Whether you want to learn about overall nutrition, add a supplement to your routine or better regulate your appetite, our coaches are here help. Work together to properly nourish your body and achieve better health.

Nutrient Food sources
Calcium Nonfat and low-fat dairy, dairy substitutes, broccoli, dark, leafy greens, and sardines
Potassium Potassium
Fiber Legumes (dried beans and peas), whole-grain foods and brans, seeds, apples, strawberries, carrots, raspberries, and colorful fruit and vegetables
Magnesium Spinach, black beans, peas, and almonds
Vitamin A Eggs, milk, carrots, sweet potatoes, and cantaloupe
Vitamin C Oranges, strawberries, tomatoes, kiwi, broccoli, and red and green bell peppers
Vitamin E Avocados, nuts, seeds, whole-grain foods, and spinach and other dark leafy greens

  • Fast facts on nutrition
    • The human body requires seven major types of nutrients.
    • Not all nutrients provide energy but are still important, such as water and fiber.
    • Micronutrients are important but required in smaller amounts.
    • Vitamins are essential organic compounds that the human body cannot synthesize.
  • What is nutrition?
    A selection of nutritious food in bowls

    As molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics advance, nutrition has become more focused on metabolism and metabolic pathways - biochemical steps through which substances inside us are transformed from one form to another.

    Nutrition also focuses on how diseases, conditions, and problems can be prevented or reduced with a healthy diet.

    Similarly, nutrition involves identifying how certain diseases and conditions may be caused by dietary factors, such as poor diet (malnutrition), food allergies, and food intolerances.
  • Essential nutrients
    • Protein
      Protein provides the building blocks of the body, and not just for muscle. Every cell, from bone to skin to hair, contains protein.
    • Carbohydrates
      Carbohydrates are necessary for a healthy body. Carbs fuel your body, especially your central nervous system and brain, and protect against disease,
    • Fats
      fat supports many of your body’s functions such as vitamin and mineral absorption, blood clotting, building cells, and muscle movement.

      Yes, fat is high in calories, but those calories are an important energy source for your body.
    • Vitamins
      Each vitamin plays an important role in the body, and not getting enough of them can cause health problems and disease.

      There are 13 essential vitamins that the body needs to function properly, including vitamins A, C, B6, and D.
    • Minerals
      Much like vitamins, minerals help support the body. They’re essential for many body functions, including building strong bones and teeth, regulating your metabolism, and staying properly hydrated. Some of the most common minerals are calcium, iron, and zinc.
    • Water
      Water improves your brain function and mood. It acts a shock absorber and a lubricant in the body. It also helps flush out toxins, carry nutrients to cells, hydrate the body, and prevent constipation.

      It’s also the main thing you are made of. About 62 percent of your body weight is water.

Nutrient Needs Every Day
Calcium Intake of calcium should be 1g/day.
Fiber Intake of fiber should be 25 to 30 grams a day.
Magnesium intake should be 410mg/day.
Vitamin E intake of vitamin E should be 15mg/day.
Vitamin C Intake dose of vitamin C is 75-90mg/day.
Vitamin A Intake dose of vitamin A is 600-900 µg/day.
Vitamin D Intake amount of vitamin D is 600 IU/day.
Potassium Intake value of potassium is 4.7g/day.
Protein Intake value of protein is 46-56g/day.
Iron Intake amount of iron is 18g/day.

  • Grains Whole-grain foods are low in fat. They’re also high in fiber and complex carbohydrates. This helps you feel full longer and prevents overeating. Check the ingredient list for the word “whole.” For example, “whole wheat flour” or “whole oat flour.” Look for products that have at least 3 grams of fiber per serving. Some enriched flours have fiber, but are not nutrient-rich.

    Choose these foods:
    • Rolled or steel cut oats
    • Whole-wheat pasta
    • Whole-wheat tortillas
    • Whole-grain (wheat or rye) crackers, breads, and rolls
    • Brown or wild rice
    • Barley, quinoa, buckwheat, whole corn, and cracked wheat.
  • Fruits and vegetables Fruits and vegetables naturally are low in fat. They add nutrients, flavor, and variety to your diet. Look for colorful fruits and vegetables, especially orange and dark green. If you can, choose organic produce. It is free of pesticides and can contain more vitamins and minerals.

    Choose these foods:
    • Broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts
    • Leafy greens, such as chard, cabbage, romaine, and bok choy
    • Dark, leafy greens, such as spinach and kale
    • Squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, turnips, and pumpkin
    • Snap peas, green beans, bell peppers, and asparagus
    • Apples, plums, mangos, papaya, pineapple, and bananas
    • Blueberries, strawberries, cherries, pomegranates, and grapes
    • Citrus fruits, such as grapefruits and oranges
    • Peaches, pears, and melons
    • Tomatoes and avocados.
  • Meat, poultry, fish, and beans Beef, pork, veal, and lamb

    Choose low-fat, lean cuts of meat. Look for the words “round,” “loin,” or “leg” in their names. Trim outside fat before cooking. Trim any inside, separable fat before eating. Baking, broiling, and roasting are the healthiest ways to prepare meat. Limit how often you eat beef, pork, veal, and lamb. Even lean cuts contain more fat and cholesterol compared to other protein sources.

    Poultry Chicken breasts are a good cut of poultry. They are low in fat and high in protein. Remove skin and outside fat before cooking. Baking, broiling, grilling, and roasting are the healthiest ways to prepare poultry.

    Fish Fresh fish and shellfish should be damp and clear in color. They should smell clean and have a firm, springy flesh. If fresh fish isn’t available, choose frozen or low-salt canned fish. Wild-caught oily fish are the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. This includes salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines. Poaching, steaming, baking, and broiling are the healthiest ways to prepare fish.

    Beans and other non-meat sources Non-meat sources of protein also can be nutrient-rich. Try a serving of beans, peanut butter, other nuts, or seeds.

    Choose these foods:
    • Lean cuts of beef, pork, veal, and lamb
    • Turkey bacon
    • Ground chicken or turkey
    • wild-caught salmon and other oily fish
    • Haddock and other white fish
    • Wild-caught tuna (canned or fresh)
    • Shrimp, mussels, scallops, and lobster (without added fat)
    • Legumes, such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas
    • seeds and nuts, including nut butters.
  • Dairy and dairy substitutes Choose skim milk, low-fat milk, or enriched milk substitutes. Try replacing cream with evaporated skim milk in recipes and coffee. Choose low-fat or fat-free cheeses.

    Choose these foods:
    • low-fat, skim, nut, or enriched milk, like soy or rice
    • skim ricotta in place of cream cheese
    • low-fat cottage cheese
    • string cheese
    • plain nonfat yogurt in place of sour cream.
  • Eating vegetables provides health benefits – people who eat more vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet are likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Vegetables provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body.

    • Most vegetables are naturally low in fat and calories. None have cholesterol. (Sauces or seasonings may add fat, calories, and/or cholesterol.)
    • Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, and vitamin C.
    • Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Vegetable sources of potassium include sweet potatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet greens, soybeans, lima beans, spinach, lentils, and kidney beans.
    • Dietary fiber from vegetables, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as vegetables help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.
    • Folate (folic acid) helps the body form red blood cells. Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant should consume adequate folate from foods, and in addition 400 mcg of synthetic folic acid from fortified foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal development.
    • Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections.
    • Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption.

    Health benefits
    • Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke.
    • Eating a diet rich in some vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may protect against certain types of cancers.
    • Diets rich in foods containing fiber, such as some vegetables and fruits, may reduce the risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
    • Eating vegetables and fruits rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may lower blood pressure, and may also reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and help to decrease bone loss.
    • Eating foods such as vegetables that are lower in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.
  • Why It's Important Most people know good nutrition and physical activity can help maintain a healthy weight. But the benefits of good nutrition go beyond weight. Good nutrition can help:

    • Reduce the risk of some diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers, and osteoporosis
    • Reduce high blood pressure
    • Lower high cholesterol
    • Improve your well-being
    • Improve your ability to fight off illness
    • Improve your ability to recover from illness or injury
    • Increase your energy level
  • What Is Good Nutrition? Good nutrition means your body gets all the nutrients, vitamins, and minerals it needs to work its best. Plan your meals and snacks to include nutrient-dense foods that are also low in calories.
  • Tips for Eating Well

    Eat plenty of fruit - To get the benefit of the natural fiber in fruits, you should eat fruit whole rather than as juices.

    Eat plenty of vegetables - Eat a variety of colors and types of vegetables every day.

    v - At least half of the cereals, breads, crackers, and pastas you eat should be made from whole grains.

    Choose low fat or fat free milk - These provide calcium and vitamin D to help keep your bones strong.

    Choose lean meats - Lean cuts of meat and poultry have less fat and fewer calories but are still good sources of protein.

    Try other sources of protein - Try replacing meats and poultry with fish, beans, or tofu.
  • How to fix 5 common eating problems As you age you may lose interest in eating and cooking. Small changes can help you overcome some of the challenges to eating well:

    Food no longer tastes good:
    Try new recipes or adding different herbs and spices. Some medicines can affect your appetite or sense of taste - talk to your doctor.

    Chewing difficulty:
    Try softer foods like cooked vegetables, beans, eggs, applesauce, and canned fruit. Talk to your doctor or dentist if there is a problem with your teeth or gums.

    Poor digestion:
    Talk to your doctor or registered dietician to figure out which foods to avoid while still maintaining a balanced diet.

    Eating alone:
    Try dining out with family, friends, or neighbors. See if your local senior center hosts group meals.

    Difficulty shopping or cooking:
    Check with your local senior center for programs that can help you with shopping or preparing meals.
  • Dietary supplements are an affordable and effective way to ensure you and your loved ones are getting the daily recommended intake of essential vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients necessary for optimal health.

    Benefits and Risks of Taking nutrition Supplements

    Nutrient How much you Don't exceed
    Calcium 1,000–1,200 mg 2,000 mg
    Folate 400 mcg 1,000 mcg
    Iron 8 mg 45 mg
    Vitamin A 700 mcg RAE* 3,000 mcg RAE
    Vitamin B 6 1.5 mg 100 mg
    Vitamin B 12 2.4 mcg No established upper limit
    Vitamin C 75 mg 2,000 mg
    Vitamin D 600–800 IU 4,000 IU
    Vitamin E 15 mg 1,000 mg
    *Retinol activity equivalents
  • Most dietary supplements are safe, and some of them offer actual health benefits, but there can be some risk with their use. Dietary supplements are products designed to augment your daily intake of nutrients, usually the vitamins and minerals.

    The Benefits

    Normally, you should be able to get all the nutrients you need from a balanced diet. However, taking supplements can provide additional nutrients when your diet is lacking or when certain health conditions cause you to develop an insufficiency or deficiency.

    In most cases, multiple-vitamin supplements provide all the basic micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) your body needs. These multiple vitamins are generally safe because they contain only small amounts of each nutrient.

    Individual nutrients can also be sold as dietary supplements, but usually in larger amounts than what's found in a typical multiple-vitamin. They may be used to treat a deficiency, such as iron deficiency, but sometimes they're used therapeutically to treat specific health conditions or risk factors.​ For example, large doses of niacin may be used to raise good cholesterol, and folic acid has been used to reduce the risk of a birth defect called spina bifida.

    Scientific research supports some of the benefits of using many dietary supplements for certain health conditions, but in many more cases, the effectiveness has not been backed up by the research evidence. The National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements has dietary supplement fact sheets that assess the evidence for (and against) the therapeutic use of a large number of dietary supplements.

    The Risks

    Most dietary supplements are safe as long as you follow the label instructions, but large doses of certain nutrients can have strong biological effects on the body.

    While that may be beneficial in some cases, there are times when taking large doses of individual supplements can be dangerous.

    For example, the fat-soluble vitamins A and D can build up to toxic levels in your body when taken in large doses over extended periods of time. Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin, so your body doesn't store it as efficiently as a fat-soluble vitamin, but prolonged use of vitamin B-6 in large amounts can cause nerve damage. Large doses of vitamin C may cause diarrhea.

    Ask your health care provider about supplements before taking anything beyond basic multiple-vitamins;
  • Who needs supplements? Almost everyone.

    Even the most conscientious consumers find it difficult to get all the nutrients they need from food alone. While dietary improvement is a desirable goal, changing dietary patterns is extremely difficult. On the assumption that it is better for people to obtain recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals than to limp along with low intakes, a multivitamin with minerals which can be purchased for less than a dime a day is an inexpensive and effective way to fill a number of known nutrient gaps. Nutrition experts at the Harvard School of Public Health have created an online version of a food pyramid with a notation recommending a “daily multivitamin plus extra vitamin D (for most people).”

    Recognizing the special nutritional needs of senior citizens, researchers at Tufts University designed a food guide pyramid for the elderly, which features a flag at the top as a reminder that supplements of calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B-12 may be needed for optimal health. The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) has a policy statement emphasizing the importance of good food choices but also recognizing that supplements can help some people meet their nutritional needs
  • Promoting health, preventing disease

    Nutrient shortfalls have health consequences that could impact daily life and overall wellbeing. National nutrition surveys show shortfalls in intakes of many nutrients. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) established by the Institute of Medicine are the targets for desirable nutrient intakes for individuals, and Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) are lower levels of intakes that may signal a risk of nutrient deficiency in a population. About one-third of nonsmokers and over two-thirds of smokers fail to get even the EAR—let alone the RDA—for vitamin C, even though vitamin C is relatively easy to obtain from foods; low intakes can lead to poor energy levels and weakness. Almost all adults fail to get enough vitamin E, and many fall short in other vitamins and minerals, which can impact immune function. More than three- quarters of women of childbearing age fail to obtain recommended amounts of iron; shortfalls can impair cognitive function, physical capability, and endurance.


      Nutrient and Population Percent Below EAR Percent Below RDA








      Over 95%
      Over 97%
      Women 19-50


  • Who takes supplements? Most people do.

    Dietary supplements are used by the majority of adults in the United States. More women than men use them; use also increases with age and education. A series of surveys recently showed that health professionals are just as likely as members of the general public to use supplements regularly. Supplement use should be seen as one component of the search for a healthier lifestyle, including improvements in overall food habits and engaging in physical exercise. While much of the current research on nutrition and health focuses on the prevention of chronic disease, the primary reason most people use multivitamins and other nutritional supplements is to support overall wellness.

    • Dietary Supplement use During

      Adult Populations Any supplement Multivitamin / mineral Botanical
      19-30 39% 27% 13%
      31-50 49% 35% 18%
      51-70 65% 44% 20%
      Over 70 71% 46% 17%
  • Benefits for all ages A generous intake of calcium plus vitamin D demonstrably helps build optimum bone mass during childhood and adolescence and also slows the rate of bone loss that naturally occurs with aging. National surveys show that U.S. calcium and vitamin D intakes are below recommended levels, especially for women—despite the fact that substantial research has shown supplements of calcium and vitamin D to be effective in maintaining or increasing bone density, and potentially in protecting health in other ways as well.

    Nutritional supplements are similarly helpful in addressing a woman’s increased nutrient needs during pregnancy. Prenatal multivitamins with minerals are commonly prescribed to ensure that both the baby’s and the mother’s needs are met. In addition to meeting normal nutritional needs during pregnancy, a multivitamin can also play a critical role in protecting against some birth defects. An abundance of data shows that women who get 400 mcg of supplemental folic acid per day for one to three months prior to conception and one to three months after conception can substantially lower the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect such as spina bifida. In most studies demonstrating these results, the protective amount of folic acid was consumed in the form of a multivitamin supplement.
  • Dietary supplements are everywhere -- you'll find them at the grocery store, drug store, convenience store and the big box stores. And there're lots of them. Multivitamins, single nutrients, fiber, minerals, fatty acids, antioxidants, extracts, weight loss aids -- even energy drinks and protein powders are classified as dietary supplements.

    So how do you know which ones to buy?

    It's not easy. Although supplements are regulated to some point by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, it's up to the supplement manufacturers to supply safe products. The FDA mostly steps in after a problem's been identified.
  • Know why -- or if -- you need them.

    Dietary supplements are best used to ensure you're getting an adequate intake of specific nutrients -- they're some multiple vitamins that will do the job nicely. But there are times when specific supplements are used to help treat specific health issues -- like taking calcium and vitamin D for osteoporosis or iron for anemia. In cases like this, your health care provider has probably already explained how much you should take and maybe offered suggests about particular brands.

    If you think you might have health reasons to take specific supplements, you need to speak with your health care provider.

    Don't diagnose yourself based on a self-help book or fall for miracle cures you might find on a website. And finally, if your goal for taking supplements is to prevent illness, then you might want to reconsider your plan -- research studies don't usually find supplements to be helpful in this way. They probably don't hurt either, but the foods you eat (or don't eat) probably have a bigger impact on your health risks.
  • Brush up on your label reading skills.

    Labels are designed to catch your eye so you'll buy the product. And although supplement manufacturers have to follow specific rules about health claims, you might find yourself looking at a product that says it can do more than it can.

    Don't believe it -- when it comes to supplements and health claims, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. At best you'll waste your money, and at worst you'll end up with something dangerous.

    Look past the claims on the front of the label and review the Supplement Facts chart and ingredients -- that will give you an idea of what's in the bottle and how much to take. You should also find the name and contact information for the manufacturer.
  • Keep it simple -- avoid the mega doses and extra ingredients.

    So let's say you want to buy a bottle of vitamin C. You go to the store, and you see one bottle of vitamin C, another bottle of vitamin C with immune-supporting herbs, and a bottle of vitamin C with this, that and some other thing. Are the additional things helpful?

    Those extra ingredients may seem like a good idea, but the more ingredients, the higher the likelihood of having some unwanted side effect.

    Start with just the vitamin or mineral you're interested in taking. Don't buy more than you need.

    Also, follow the dosage instructions on the label. Although dietary supplements are generally safe, taking too much can be bad for you. I know that some people endorse mega-doses of supplements for various health reasons, but please don't.
  • Choose a respected brand.

    You know there are some brands of vitamins you've seen for years -- they've been around for a long time, so they probably offer a decent product. If you're shopping at a drug store or a health food store, you should be able to ask someone for advice.

    But if you're going to the grocery store or the big box store -- well then you're on your own.

    In that case, look for products that have been certified by ConsumerLabs, The U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, or NSF International. These organizations don't guarantee a product is safe or effective, but they indicate that it's undergone testing for quality.
  • Buying on the Internet? Evaluate the site!

    Searching the web for supplements will turn up all kinds of websites, from official supplement company sites to cut-rate cheapo sites, to websites that sell products that are worthless or worse. Don't fall for products that promise cures for diseases, extreme weight loss, or um, impressive sexual prowess.

    Look for sites that offer current sound information (with references), include easy access to contact information. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine has tips on evaluating health websites.
  • Myth
    You can lose 10 kgs in a month.

    ➤ Logic
    Many health centres have used this marketing line to sell their products. Actually, it is a very unhealthy and unsustainable process of losing weight. One should always think about long-term benefits when it comes to health. Scientifically, the healthy weight loss range falls between 2 to 5 kgs only.

    ➤ Fact
    You cannot lose 10 kgs in a month
  • Myth
    Exercise is enough, no need of dieting.

    ➤ Logic
    Exercise is beneficial for many reasons but when it comes to weight loss, a proper weight loss diet plays a vital role.If you eat 1 chicken sandwich, you consume 400 to 500 calories, you need to burn these calories by working out for at least for an hour. Now imagine a scenario where you would have made a healthier choice. In that case, a half an hour workout would have been enough. Get to know how much exercise you need to lose weight?

    ➤ Fact
    Exercise is not enough, proper dieting is absolutely essential.
  • Myth
    Fasting and Skipping meals help you to lose weight fast

    ➤ Logic
    Fasting and skipping meals slow down the metabolism due to which you shed weight slowly. Besides that, later in the day, you feel really hungry and binge on unhealthy stuff.Learn to get more information on Increase body metabolism to lose weight.

    ➤ Fact
    Fasting and Skipping meals never help you to lose weight fast.
  • Myth
    Carbohydrates make you gain weight. So, cut down carbs in your diet

    ➤ Logic
    Carbohydrates never make you gain weight. It is the calories that make you gain weight.The sugar and fat that carbohydrates often contain make you fat. Opt for other good carbs like whole grains.

    ➤ Fact
    Carbohydrates never make you gain weight. You have to avoid bad carbs like Sugar, added sugar, refined flours.Learn to know more about good and bad carbohydrates.
  • Myth
    Fad diet helps you to lose weight faster.

    ➤ Logic
    Fad diets are comprised of only 800 to 1000 calories which is difficult to follow. It has many adverse effects in the long run. One should always avoid this kind of diet.

    ➤ Fact
    Fad diet is that kind of weight loss diet which actually results in weight gain
  • Myth
    A fruit- only diet is best for weight loss

    ➤ Logic
    Fruits also have calories. However, if you live only on fruits, you deprive your body of variety of nutrients and can face long-term health problems

    ➤ Fact
    Fruit only diet is not good at all.

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